Latest news


Category filter:AllBrain surgerySpine Surgery
No more posts

January 20, 2020 0

Brain Tumor Risk Factors

Brain Tumor Risk Factors for any disease or illness refer to the habits, lifestyle and any condition that increases the chances or makes the person susceptible to that disease.

The words brain tumor instantly sparks distress and worry and the lack of knowledge on the causes and conditions that tumor can arrive at, also it makes understanding the condition more difficult. Tumors are nothing but abnormal growth of cells in the body. Cells that otherwise multiply and form new cells to repair the wear and tear, some time can get out of control and their multiplication becomes unrestrained. Cells multiply and form tissues that grow into a mass of flesh termed as a tumor. When this uncontrolled activity happens with the brain cells, a primary brain tumor is formed.

When the origin of the tumor is in the brain region, it is termed as a primary brain tumor. These tumors can be either benign or malignant. In the case of primary tumors, the cells involved are brain cells and hence treatment is more focused. and directed to the root of the tumor.

  • Benign brain tumors pose a lesser threat as they have a defined line and growth scope. The cells do not invade adjacent tissues and once removed, it is unlikely that the tumor would reoccur.
  • Malignant brain tumors pose a larger threat because the cells grow rapidly and can interfere with other vital organs and their functions. These tumors reoccur and result in Brain cancer.

The other type of cancerous tumors is the secondary brain tumors which are potentially a threat and create complications. Cancer that grows in any other part of the body like lungs, kidneys, skin or colon grows and shoots some cancerous cells in the bloodstream. These cells move in the body and can lodge in any part. When they lodge in the brain, they begin the process of multiplication. It needs to be noted that these are not brain cells. They are cells probably from the lung or kidney and begin to create a tumor in the brain. The complications are severe in such cases.

Risk factors that cause brain tumor

The exact cause for the occurrence of a brain tumor is not yet known. A significant amount of research has been conducted in this domain. However, scientists are yet to arrive at a definite and proven cause. There are risk factors though that can trigger the multiplication of cells in the brain.

Family history

Around 10-15% of cancers or tumors are passed on genetically to the next generation. However, in the case of brain tumors that is rare. But the possibility exists. Genetic screening and consultation can help trace such occurrences and the diagnosis can be done in an early stage.


Brain tumors can occur at any age and even children under the age of 10 have been diagnosed with brain tumors. But age does become a risk factor. In this case, there is not a single proven reason, however, there are certain theories. Like age also indicates the number of years the person has been exposed to carcinogenic matter and thereby there could be a trigger. Another theory suggests that chronic inflammations, dwindling immunity, and changes in tissues create an environment for the uncontrolled growth of cells.

Chemical exposure

Tobacco smoke, poisonous chloride compounds are known to alter the brain cell functions and trigger tumors. Arsenic that seeps in the ground water that can reach our body through food and water is recorded to be highly carcinogenic. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) and the cancer wing of the World Health Organization have listed certain substances based on scientific research and evidence that can be termed as carcinogenic.

Exposure to radiation

Most people are treated with certain radiations for minor ailments like worm infections in the scalp, which can sometimes trigger tumor growth in the brain. Ionizing radiation is used to treat other cancers which may trigger a brain tumor. Nuclear radiations from radiators or radiator leaks or nuclear accidents like the one in Fukushima Japan cite how these radiations leave a long-term impact on people and trigger cancerous tumors.


Research suggests that Caucasians and African-American races are more susceptible to brain tumors.

Certain chemicals are said to be carcinogenic. But that does not mean that they will surely cause brain tumors. A lot depends on the duration of exposure to these chemicals, the lifestyle, immunity of the person and unhealthy habits like smoking, alcohol consumption and so on.


January 17, 2020 0

Degenerative Disc Disease

Our spine goes through a lot of wear and tear as it supports movements. The spinal vertebrae are cushioned by discs that safeguard against shocks and jerks from activities like walking, lifting and twisting. Degenerative disc disease is associated with changes in these intervertebral discs that arise with age. The abnormalities can occur anywhere in the spine but most often it is observed in the neck region (cervical spine) and the lower back (lumbar spine) because these bones support the maximum movement. The changes in the discs that can be termed as degenerative disc disease are:

  • Osteoarthritis, the impairment of the tissue that protects and cushions vertebral joints
  • A herniated disc, protruding or cracking of spinal disc
  • Spinal stenosis, abnormal contraction of the spinal canal,

Causes Degenerative disc disease

The discs hold a soft gel-like substance that prevents friction and with age, the spinal discs degenerate and undergo changes like:

  • Loss or drying of disc fluid: This affects the shock absorption capacity of the discs and its flexibility and the disc narrows down and the gap between the disc and vertebrae increases.
  • Bulging disc or herniation: Weakness or external injury results in a minor crack on the outer layer of the disc. The gel substance leaks out, and with movement, it comes out of the gaps. This can cause the disc to bulge, rupture or break.
  • Bone spur: If the disc narrows or cracks, the gap between disc and vertebrae increases and the spine become less stable. The body responds to this by initiating bony growths called bone spurs also known as osteophytes. These spurs can exert pressure on the spinal cord or nerve roots that shoot from the cord.
  • People with jobs or hobbies that involve heavy weight lifting, can face this issue. Smokers, elderly people or people with a past injury can also suffer from degenerative disc disease.

Symptoms of degenerative disc disease

Back or neck pain is the most common symptom in any of the degenerative disc diseases. However, there have been cases where the person does not experience any pain even with the same intensity of the damage.

The pain occurs around the affected area. If the disc is damaged near the neck, the pain is experienced along the shoulder blade and the arms. If the lumbar spine is affected the pain spreads to the buttock, thighs till the knees. This pain gets worse with movement like twisting, bending and stretching.

Another common symptom is numbness and weakness in limbs. A tingling sensation can also be felt because a spinal nerve is pinched either by the bone spur or bulging disc.

Elderly patients experience loss of bladder control, difficulty in keeping balance, handing smaller objects, etc. This happens due to the narrowing of the spinal canal and compression of nerves and spinal cord. The nerve function weakens.

How is degenerative disc disease diagnosed?

It begins with understanding the medical history and a thorough physical exam. The doctor will seek information on the symptoms, duration, past injuries, illnesses or lifestyle, habits, nature of everyday activities, etc.

The second step would be to check the range of motion, muscle strength, ease of movement, nerve reflexes, tenderness, and inflammation is any. The doctor might also check for fractures or infections. Post this the patient is suggested Imaging tests to identify the level of compression and exact location of the damage.


  • Medication and hot/cold packs help ease the pain. If the pain is unbearable, the doctor will prescribe stronger pain reliefs and application ointments.
  • The next step is physical therapy, where the therapist will move every joint in a specific sequence. It involves stretching and strengthening the muscles in the back.
  • Surgery is the last resort. It depends on the type of degeneration and is necessary if the spinal cord or nerves are compressed either by the narrowing canal or the bulging disc or maybe the bony spurs.
Traditional decompression surgeries performed from the back (posterior) of the spine are:

Facetectomy: Spinal joints called facet joints are removed if they exert pressure on the nerve or cord.

Foraminotomy: Enlargement of the opening is made for the nerve to exit without pressure in case a part of the disc or bony spur blocks its path.

Laminectomy: Lamina is the posterior portion of the vertebrae that protect the spinal canal and cord. If it is pressing the spinal cord, surgery is done to remove part or whole of the lamina to ease the pressure on the cord.

Laminotomy: Similar to the foraminotomy, a bigger opening is made in the lamina if it is pressing a nerve structure. The nerves are given more space to exit the cord and reach the limbs.

Traditional decompression surgeries performed from the front (anterior) of the spine are:

These are preferred in case of herniated disc or narrowing of the spinal canal and if the spinal cord comes in way of the surgery path.

Discectomy: Parts or all of the herniated disc is removed that exert pressure on nerves.

Corpectomy: (Vertebrectomy): If the damaged disc is lodged between the vertebrae and the spinal cord, the surgeon might have to remove the entire vertebral body and gain access to remove the part of the disc.

  • Minimal invasive surgery or less invasive surgery has come in as a relief for patients that suffer from degenerative disc surgery. Discectomy is done with this technique where microscope and advanced surgical tools are used for the process. A very small incision is used to insert the tools and procedure indirectly monitored.

These surgeries leave a gap between the organs, which is filled using FUSION and an environment is created using bone graft which will gradually fuse with the spine.

Recovery and post-surgery follow-up

If the surgery involves a fusion, it takes some months for the area to heal completely and the bones to fuse together. Local pain might persist. In minimally invasive surgery, the incision heals faster and since the muscles are not involved, the pain is lesser. There can be few follow-up sessions where the doctor will monitor the progress and check the range and ease of movement.

Cost of surgery

Degenerative disc disease is a condition and there are different types of surgeries that can cure it depending on the exact abnormality. Minor surgeries can cost between 2lacs – 4lacs. Complicated surgeries that involve fusion or removal of the vertebral body can cost between 4lacs-6lacs. This includes charges for the procedure, consultation, hospital stay, etc.


January 17, 2020 0



Also known as osteoarthritis, it is associated with the wear and tear of the bones, ligaments, and weakening of the spinal discs. Spondylosis usually affects the elderly, but the symptoms can seem as early as 20 years of age. Spondylosis has affected over 80% of people above the age of 50 Globally. It is different from spondylitis; while spondylitis is associated with inflammation, spondylosis implies pain and degeneration of bones.


The possible causes for Spondylosis condition could be:

  • Bone spurs or overgrowth that the body initiates to support the spine. This extra growth does not find space and tends to press the delicate areas like the spinal cord, nerves or the discs.
  • Dry spinal discs is one major cause. The soft cushioning discs between the vertebrae absorb jerks and shocks and provide padding against friction due to movement. The disc holds a gel-like substance which tends to dry out due to age or any internal disorder. The vertebrae are devoid of padding and rub against each other while moving. This causes roughness and pain.
  • Herniated discs develop when the cushioning disc cracks or juts out and the gel within leaks. Now, this protruding disc can press the cord or nerves which causes sciatica.
  • Any past injury or accident trauma that might have affected the neck or lower back can render the bones weak and lead to spondylosis in later age.
  • Connecting ligaments between bones tend to stiffen over time and restrict movement, especially in the neck region. These, when moved with force, can cause pain.
  • Occupations that involve lifting heavyweight or a continuous repetitive movement of the back cause wearing out of the bones that have been exerted the most. Heavy weight lifting in the gym over time can cause spinal wear and tear.


This can occur in the cervical spine (neck region), middle back or the lumbar spine (lower back). Common signs are stiffness in neck or headaches.

Symptoms include:

  • A localized pain in the area of damage, mostly along the shoulder blade.
  • If the spondylosis has resulted in a herniated disc the person might experience a sharp shooting pain that increases with movement. The other symptoms then are similar to that of a slipped disc.
  • If there is an injury to the spinal cord it is referred to as myelopathy and the symptoms include pain, numbness, weakness, and tingling.
  • If spondylosis results in nerve pinching, the symptoms are felt along the course of the nerve and include pain, tingling, and weakness.
  • Spondylosis in the lumbar spine can cause pain the shoots down the thighs to behind the knees and sometimes can go lower to the calf muscles. It is called radiculopathy.

When to seek medical help?

If the back pain is unbearable and seems to worsen with movement, or if it is followed by weakness in limbs or stiffness in neck which restricts activity, it is a sign to seek medical attention.


Beginning with a physical examination of the neck and lumbar region, the doctor will check abnormalities in nerve function, sensations, reflexes, muscle strength, range of movement, changes in gait along with understanding the history of symptoms and injuries if any.

Taking the diagnosis further, the doctor will suggest imaging tests like X-ray, CT scan or MRI to trace bone spurs, pinched nerves or protruding discs. A nerve function test follows this.


Spondylosis treatments

Depending on the cause of Spondylosis and the intensity of damage the doctor would begin with medication followed by low-intensity physical therapy and adequate rest. The therapy includes stretching neck and shoulder muscles. A doctor can also suggest few sessions of neck traction, where weights are used on the neck to increase cervical space and relieve the pressure on the cord or nerves. Medication should generally be a combination of pain reliefs, muscle relaxants, and anti-epileptic drugs for nerve relief. Acupuncture is another alternative therapy to treat spondylosis in the initial stage.


Is rarely necessary for cervical spondylosis. But where the preliminary treatment fails, and the condition gets worse, it recommended in severe cases. To eject bone spurs or the bulging disc, and to create space for the cable and nerves doctors to surgery. Sometimes to stabilize the spine, vertebrae fusion follows this procedure.

  • Laminectomy is the procedure to remove the bone curvatures of the spinal canal to increase the size of the canal and reduce pressure on the cord.
  • Discectomy is to remove the bulging portion of the disc that exerts pressure.
  • Foraminotomy or foraminectomy is to expand the openings for the nerve to exit the spinal canal without compression.
  • Osteophyte is the removal of bone spurs that pinch nerves.
  • Corpectomy is a procedure to remove a vertebral bone and discs.

Minimal Invasive / Less Invasive Surgery Procedure

This is an advanced surgical procedure that involves an incision of barely 1 inch in the back and the surgeons use micro tools, endoscope, and indirect monitoring through a high definition monitor to perform the surgery.

Like in the case of spondylosis due to herniated discs, to evict the bulging part and repair the disc keyhole surgery is use. This takes less than a day and the patient can feel instant relief. To ease a compressed nerve, minimally invasive surgery is vital for spinal decompression. Bone graft and screws or plates to hold it in place and support the spine. To control critical pain, doctors can insert in the vertebral bone near the trigger points of the patient.

Duration of surgery: If it is less invasive surgery the hospital time can be 1-3 days. In the case of the traditional procedure, hospital time can range from 3-5 days.


This is necessary for the doctor to monitor the response to treatment and the onset of any case of sciatica. As the treatment progresses the doctor might suggest changes in physical therapy too. Imaging and scan is not necessary.

Cost of Spondylosis surgery

This depends on the cause of spondylosis and the type of surgery. In India, the cost of surgery to treat spondylosis can range from 2.5 lacs to 4 lacs which includes the cost of surgery procedure, hospital charges, and doctor consultation.


January 16, 2020 0

What is Carpal Tunnel Syndrome?

Carpal tunnel syndrome is a condition of the hand where one of the nerves called the median nerve passing through the wrist supplying the hand is compressed due to continuous pressure. It can lead to numbness, tingling, weakness or muscle damage in the hand and fingers.

Common in people performing repetitive movements of hand and wrist like:

  1. Computer operators
  2. Painters
  3. Drivers
  4. Writers
  5. Musicians
  6. Housemaids doing cleaning work
  7. Sewers
  8. People who are obese or suffering from gout/ rheumatoid
    arthritis/ diabetes are more prone

Symptoms of Carpal Tunnel

  1. Pain in the wrist and hand, exacerbating on movement
  2. Numbness and tingling in the palm and thumb
  3. Excruciating pain on fine finger movements
  4. Not able to grip objects due to pain
  5. Weakness

Prevention tips

  1. Take frequent breaks.
  2. Keep your wrists in a natural position.
  3. Perform stretching exercises.
  4. Use tools designed to reduce wrist injury at the workplace.
  5. Stop smoking.
  6. Regular exercise to make your muscles strong.
  7. Use wrist braces to support your wrist.

For more information related to Carpal Tunnel Syndrome contact us:+91-9891778811


January 16, 2020 0

What Is Parkinson’s Diseases?

A disease that affects nerve cells in the brain and causes tremors, poor coordination, and problems walking and moving.

Symptoms of Parkinson:

  1. Memory loss, Dementia
  2. Anxiety, depression
  3. Slow blinking
  4. No facial expression
  5. Drooling
  6. Difficulty Swallowing
  7. Shaking, tremors
  8. Loss of small or fine hand movements
  9. Stooped posture
  10. Aches and pains
  11. Constipation
  12. Problems with balance or walking

Stages of Parkinson’s Progression:

  1. One side of the body affected
  2. Both sides affected, but balance intact
  3. Balance impaired, but not independent functioning
  4. Walking or standing difficult without assistance
  5. Bedridden or wheelchair bound without assistance
spine and brain india LOGO

About Dr. Arun Saroha

Dr.Arun Saroha is working as Neurosurgeon with a special interest in spine surgery for the last 15 years. He specializes in Neuro-oncology, Paediatric Neurosurgery, Neurotrauma, Stroke & Cerebrovascular surgery including Transnasal surgeries. He has also been performing instrumented/ Non-instrumentation spine surgeries, including minimally invasive spine surgeries. He has performed more than 6,000 Neurosurgeries (Spine and Brain) successfully till date with patients from all over the world.


Sign up for SBI newsletter to receive all the news offers and discounts.

Designed By Branding Pioneers